This is enough air for up to 9 adults crowded into a small shelter in extremely hot humid weather, and enough for about 100 people in cold weather. In occupancy tests of crowded shelters when the supply of outdoor air was hot and dry, shelter occupants have been surprised to find that they felt hottest at the air-exhaust end of their shelter, where the temperature reading was lower than at the air-intake end. More air usually can be pumped through a shelter if the fan is used to force air out through the air exhaust opening. This should allow you room to get out of your shelter in the event of a direct hit. In warm weather, chimney-type natural ventilation usually is inadequate for most high-protection factor shelters that are fully occupied for days. By using one or more additional, smaller KAPs (also described in Appendix B), fresh air can be distributed easily throughout large shelter rooms, and the occupants will be gently fanned. 1 x 2- inch hoard. Then the pair of fanners should count 1, 2. :3 while they: 1. The edges of the handle are rounded smooth, The blade frame is covered on both sides with strong bedsheet cloth, that is wrapped around and secured to the strong cords or wires tied to notches cut in the boards or sticks) near the 4 corners of the blade. After 1000 hours of operation during which it pumped air through a room at a rate of 4000 cubic feet per minute (4000 cfm), there were only minor tears in the plastic flaps. Fortunately, even in many expedient shelters completed in a few days, filtered air can be provided by using a homemade KAP to pump air through furnace or air-conditioner filters, as described in the last section of Appendix B. Some people who are experienced at building things will find these instructions unnecessarily long and detailed. If no sticks are available, a double thickness of heavy, stiff cardboard 22 inches long by 14 inches wide will pump almost as much air if used as a handleless fan. You need to be out of the way when lightning strikes and you also need to be out of the rain as much as possible. Smooth the concrete on top of the storm shelter with a steel float. The doors at both ends were open. A fan with its blade made of two sheets of very heavy cardboard tied on both sides of a 1 x 2-inch board is decidedly effective when dry. C. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIONAL FANS. These tests were conducted in 1982 near Kansas City in a huge limestone mine that has a ceiling averaging about 17 feet high, corridors about 35 feet wide, columns of unexcavated rock about 15 feet square, and over 1,000,000 square feet of level, dry floor space. (If waterproof construction adhesive is available, a smaller piece of cloth can be used and the blade can be covered in a very few minutes.). 1: The Dangers from Nuclear Weapons: Myths and Facts, Ch. The great advantage of Directional Fanning is that almost anyone who is given the field-tested instructions can quickly make and use one of these simple fans. They were guided by successively improved versions of these detailed, written instructions, that include many illustrations (see Appendix B). It is important to understand that the heat and water vapor given off by the bodies of people in a crowded, long-occupied shelter could be deadly if fallout prevents leaving the shelter. This publication has all of the details you will need on how to build your own tornado shelter in your area. Four or more Directional Fans when used to circulate air within a shelter room can serve like air ducts, while simultaneously fanning occupants. This storm cellar room measures 7 x 8 ft., but it could just as easily be 4 x 4 ft. By fanning vigorously, 500 to 600 cubic feet per minute have been forced through a small covered-trench shelter. 6.4, a relatively "large" particle - 40 microns (40 u m) in diameter, spherical, and with the sand-like density of most fallout particles - falls about 1300 feet in 8 hours. Then if you must evacuate, take the folder with you to the storm shelter. The reader is urged to keep the following two pages of Directional Fanning instructions ready for reproduction in a crisis. All Concrete Storm Shelters have a 10 Year Warranty against leaks and corrosion. However, this method requires organization and discipline. The reader is advised not to read this section if pressed for time during a crisis, unless he is considering building an expedient or permanent shelter described in an official civil defense publication. With one or more Directional Fans, air inside a shelter can be distributed effectively and the occupants cooled. A permanent family fallout shelter, built at moderate cost before a crisis, should have a ventilation system that can supply adequate volumes of either filtered or unfiltered air, pumped in through an air-intake pipe and out through an air-exhaust pipe. Contractors, individuals, or firms shall not claim they or their products are "FEMA approved" or "FEMA certified.". E: How to Make a Homemade Piston Pump, App. 2,3. In the aforementioned Navy test, a high speed, electric ventilating pump and the frictional resistance of pipes and filters raised the temperature of the air supplied to the shelter by 3 degrees F. Under extreme heat wave conditions, an air supply 3 degrees F hotter than outdoor air could be disastrous especially if considerably less than 40 cfm per occupant is supplied, and body heat raises the air temperature several additional degrees. Their products are `` FEMA approved '' or `` FEMA certified. `` see... 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